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INTRODUCTION

GENERAL BACKGROUND

 History

 Definitions

ANALYSIS

 Reasons

 Strategies

 Categories

 Pros/Cons

 Best Practices

 Implementation

 Future

SYSTEMIC IMPACT

IMPLICATIONS

CONCLUSIONS

RECOMMENDATIONS

REFERENCES

APPENDICES

AUTHOR NOTES

TABLES

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Trends and Issues: The Impact of Learning Objects

Categories of Learning Objects (LOs)

Trying to identify categories of LOs is not easy when it is so hard to actually define what an LO is, or what its qualities are. Wiley states that there are five types of learning objects that make one type of learning object different from another” (http://reusability.org/read/chapters/wiley.doc, 2000):

  • Fundamental – For example, a JPEG of a hand playing a chord on a piano keyboard. . (Example - http://www.pianolessonsonline.com/Lessons/lesson%204a.htm)
  • Combined-closed – For example, a video of a hand playing an arpeggiated chord on a piano keyboard with accompanying audio. (Example - http://www.danmansmusic.com/piano_videos.htm)
  • Combined-open – For example, a web page dynamically combining the previously mentioned JPEG and QuickTime file together with textual material “on the fly.” (Example - http://www.dcpiano.com/)
  • Generative-presentation – For example, a JAVA applet capable of graphically generating a set of staff, clef, and notes, and then positioning them appropriately to present a chord identification problem to a student. (Example - http://www.teoria.com/exercises/chords.htm)
  • Generative-instructional – For example, an EXECUTE instructional transaction shell (Merrill, 1999), which both instructs and provides practice for any type of procedure, for example, the process of chord root, quality, and inversion identification. (Example - http://www.funbrain.com/notes/index.html)

See Table 1 for a preliminary taxonomy of the above learning object types, which Wiley created to help differentiate possible types of learning objects available for use in instructional design.

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